Pornography's Relationship To Rape and Aggression Toward Women

Дополнительные данные о женской порнографии (англ.).

 

The Problem
  • National Obscenity Enforcement Unit of the U.S. Department of Justice
    • Rape rate has climbed 43% in the last 10 years (reported May 1988)
    • The highest incidence of rape victims are teenagers between the ages of 16 and 19
  • Finkelhor (1979); Kanin & Parcell (1977); Koss & Oros (1982)

"It has been estimated that in the U.S. between one-fifth and one-fourth of the female population is subjected to rape."

  • Russell (1984)

Nearly 45% of women in a San Francisco random sample reported that they were subjected to at least one rape or attempted rape in their lifetime. 82% of the rapes were committed by non-strangers and 2/3 of the victims were assaulted by acquaintances or friends

  • Koss (1987)

84% of college students who were victims of completed rapes knew their assailant and two thirds of them were assaulted by a date.

  • Bureau of Justice Statistics (1986)

The number of forcible rapes and the rates per 100,000 population doubled in the decade of the 60's and then doubles again in the decade of the 70's -- the time of the "sexual revolution" in America.

  • Abel, et al (1987)

"The frequency of self-reported crimes" for the non-incarcerated sex offenders they studied "was vastly greater than the number of crimes for which they had been arrested. The ratio of arrest to commission of the more violent crimes such as rape and child molestation was approximately 1:30."

  • Zillmann & Bryant (1982); Zillman, in press

"Research has shown that as sexual callousness grows in strength, rape is considered a lesser transgression."

  • Mosher & Sirkin (1984)

There is a strong relationship between sexually callous attitudes and histories of forceful, coercive, aggressive sexual conquests.

  • Milton (1973)

He reported that two thirds of a sample of convicted rapists frequently fantasized forcible sadistic acts.

  • Storm (1981); Kelly & Byrne (1978)

Symbolic events that are incorporated in masturbatory fantasies and activities become closely associated with sexual excitement and this association will foster expectations of great rewarding sensations from acting out the callous, coercive actions that initially had symbolic character only. Pornography in this context, provides the material for fantasies that easily come to mind at later time and then constitute the takeoff for personal fantasies that are similar in kind. It thus guides imagery, imagination, fantasies, and expectations. Sequentially, exposure to external aggressive sexual imagery increases the probability of engaging in overt coercive behavior.

  • Koss (1987)

Only 5% of women college students who reported forced sex during the previous year reported the incident to the police.

  • Russell (1984)

Less than 10% of rapes reported in the San Francisco survey had been reported to the police.

  • Kanin (1969); Mosher (1971); Koss & Oros (1982)

"about one-fourth of male college students admitted to having made forcible attempts at intercourse"

  • National Crime Survey U.S. Department of Justice

Forcible rape has increased by 562% (73,240 cases) since 1960; by 11% between 1983 and 1986.

Does Pornography Promote Abuse?
  • Gray, Susan (1982)

"Levels of aggression in already-angered men are increased by exposure to hard-core materials."

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation

Research conducted involving 36 serial murderers revealed that 81% (29/36) reported pornography as one of their highest sexual interests, making pornography one of the most common profile characteristics of serial murderers.

  • Dr. William Marshall (1983)

He found that 86% of rapists admitted regular use of pornography, with 57% admitting actual imitation of pornography scenes in commission of sex crimes.

  • Malamuth (1981)

Responses found to characterize (convicted) rapists were:

1) general acceptance of rape myths, and

2) high arousal to rape depictions.

He studied male college students, asking them, "How likely would you be to rape if you knew you would not be caught?" --35% indicated they would.

  • Malamuth and Check (1985)

After studying 307 students, they concluded that "media depictions (pornography) suggesting that (showing that) rape results in the victim's arousal contributes to men's belief in a similar rape myth -- particularly men with higher inclinations to aggress against women."

  • Victor Cline, Ph.D. (Utah Psychologist)

He identified a common pattern of progression with many pornography users (sex offenders):

1. addiction to hard core pornography;

2. escalation in the need for more shocking material;

3. desensitization toward initially shocking material; and

4. an increased tendency to "act out" sexual activities

  • Zillmann, Dolf (1982)

Findings show that massive exposure (4 hours forty minutes over six weeks) to standard pornography (people having consensual, nonviolent sex) resulted in

1. a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general;

2. a loss of concern about the effects of pornography on others;

3. a need for more violent and bizarre forms of sex;

4. a desensitization to violent, non-coercive hard core pornography; and

5. a trivialization of rape.

  • Michigan State Police ( Lt. Darrell H. Pope)

Studied and recorded the use of pornography in sex crimes. He researched 48,000 sex crimes spanning a 20 year period (1956-1979). (Research was done in 1977, replicated in 1981).

In 42% of the 48,000 sex crimes investigated, police indicated that pornography was involved -- used just prior to, or during the act of sexual assault -- as stated by the victim or the offender.

  • Silbert and Pines (1984)

A detailed content analysis of 193 cases of rape and of 178 cases of juvenile sexual abuse revealed a clear relationship between violent pornography and sexual abuse.

  • Goldstein, Kant and Harman (1973)

Rapists are 15 times as likely as non-offenders (30% to 2%) to have had exposure to "hard core" pornography during childhood or between 6 to 10 years of age. They also tended to report an earlier age of "peak experience" with pornography."

It is highly likely, based upon McGaugh's studies on memory, that the early experiences "stood out in the minds" of these children because of the release of the chemical epinephrine during their emotional arousal. This makes these findings even more disturbing.